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Special Troops 1942-1950


De Nederlandse stalen helm 1916-1992

Special Troops, 1942-1950

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On March 17, 1900 the Boers at the court-martial in Kroonstad decided to carry out surprise attacks on the British connecting lines with small independent commandos, which were 200 to 2000 men strong. The powerful British empire was able to compel the small republics of the Orange Free State and the South African Republic (Transvaal) to surrender only with difficulty and at the expense of heavy sacrifices.

This principle was adopted 40 years later by the British. Those who were voluntarily assigned to the commando units should be able to fight alone or in small groups, be able to endure great hardships and have a strong corps spirit. They learned that darkness was their friend, not their enemy, had to be trained to be trained and trained for action under the most difficult conditions. The term "command" therefore comes from the Boer War (1899-1902).

No 2 (Dutch) Troop and the Insulinde Corps (Netherlands Special Operations), 1942-1945

During the various raids on the coasts of Europe, it soon turned out to be highly desirable for the British commandos to have brothers in arms who were known and spoke the language in the occupied countries. Therefore, an Allied command was established in January 1942 under the name of No 10 (Interallied) Commando.

On March 22, 1942, 48 Dutchmen, most of them from the Princess Irene Brigade, started their preliminary training with No 3, No 4, No 9 and No 12 Commando. In May 1942, the group meets at the Commando Basic Training Center in Achnacarry, Scotland, for command training. Eventually, of those 48 men, 25 received the green beret and in June 1942 a command unit consisting entirely of Dutchmen, No 2 (Dutch) Troop was formed. June 29, 1942 leave the successful Achnacarry behind and move to Troon on the Scottish west coast, where the foundation for the later Dutch command unit is laid. From Troon one goes to the new location of Port Madoc in North Wales, where No 2 (Dutch) Troop is included in No 10 (Interallied) Commando. After that several members of the Princess Irene Brigade followed the commando training in addition to No 2 (Dutch) Troop. In 1943 No 2 (Dutch) Troop was appointed to be deployed in the Far East against the Japanese (Korps Insulinde).

On September 4, 1944, after more than fourteen days of disembarkation leave, No 2 (Dutch) Troop was informed that the Troop would be divided over several Allied parts to act as guides and interpreters in an upcoming action (Market Garden). On September 5, 1944, 1st Lieutenant C.J.B. Ruysch van Dugteren with two corporals and two soldiers assigned as bodyguard to the staff of HRH Prince Bernhard. On September 6, 1944, Lieutenant M.J. Knottenbelt with one sergeant, two corporals and four Eastbourne soldiers to carry out a mission of the Special Assignments Office (BBO). Lieutenant Knottenbelt first took part in the action near Arnhem and was then dropped at Barneveld on April 3, 1945. With untrained troops from the Interior Forces, he ambushed German soldiers, enabling the Canadian crossing of the Apeldoorn Canal.

Sergeant W. van der Veer, Corporal R.C. Michels and soldier N.J. the King were dropped at Westerbork on October 9, 1944, as was soldier R.A. Blatt a few days earlier at Ellertshaar (Drenthe). These commandos subsequently acted as instructors for the resistance in Groningen, Friesland and Drenthe until the end of the war. Sergeant W. van der Veer was also in action during the landings of French paratroopers in Drenthe on the night of 7-8 April 1945 and the subsequent combat actions. The other three soldiers were unsuitable for deployment in occupied territory because they had insufficient command of the Dutch language. They served as an instructor for the Stoottroepen in the southern Netherlands until the end of the war.

On September 8, 1944, Captain J. Linzel, 1st Lieutenant C. de Ruiter, one corporal and two soldiers were added to the headquarters of the 52nd (Lowland) Division. This division was intended to be transported by air to Deelen after the landing near Arnhem. When this was canceled due to the unfortunate course of the fighting near Arnhem, this group of commandos was seconded to the staff of the 1st Allied Airborne Corps in Nijmegen on October 4, 1944.

Four sergeants, one corporal and ten soldiers were assigned to the 1st British Airborne Division on September 10, 1944, and on September 13, 1944, Lieutenant M.J. Knottenbelt is also seconded to this division. Two sergeants and one soldier finally landed on September 17, 1944 with the staff of the 1st Allied Airborne Corps near Nijmegen. An officer, a sergeant, a corporal and 7 soldiers landed gliders in the area the same day

from Arnhem.

The glider in which Sergeant K. Luitwieler sat was forced to make an emergency landing on an open area near the monastery of the brown fathers in Biezenmortel, North Brabant. The further crew of the aircraft consisted of a lieutenant of the 1st Polish Parachute Brigade, two English sergeants (1st and 2nd pilot) and two English drivers with their jeeps. Citizens helped unload both jeeps, after which it was decided to try to reach Arnhem after all and they left in the direction of Helvoirt. The Germans, who had already discovered the glider, warned Helvoirt's occupation that the jeeps were approaching. The five paratroopers and sergeant K. Luitwieler, however, shot their way through the Germans, after which the journey continued in the direction of Haaren, Esch. While cornering, one of the English fell from the jeep into the Esch basin, which was captured by the Germans. Beyond Esch, they then came across German trucks lined up along the road. They then unnoticed drove the jeeps into a forest road and made a shelter. In the evening they already got in touch with the Dutch resistance. He brought food that had been stolen from a German kitchen cart that stood at Huize Leeuwenrode where a German staff sat and they provided a small tent. Through the same group of resistance fighters, they came into contact with more than 100 English and American paratroopers who were hidden in the nature reserve Campina near Boxtel. After a nightly reconnaissance patrol conducted by Sergeant Luitwieler with the Polish lieutenant Janusz Szegda, the Allied paratroopers joined in. In the evening of October 24, 1944, Boxtel was liberated by this group of 107 men. Finally, Sergeant Luitwieler returned to his unit on November 4, 1944 after his wanderings in occupied territory.

The glider in which soldier H. de Leeuw sat had to make an emergency landing on the island of Schouwen-Duiveland. Immediately after landing he went into hiding with two pilots and the local resistance provided them with food. After the population register of Renesse was cracked by the same resistance group on December 3, 1944, a number of resistance fighters had to leave the island. People had already made contact with the English on Walcheren via a telephone line from the Provincial Zeeland Electric Electricity Company. It was agreed that on the night of December 6, 1944, the resistance fighters would be picked up by boat. The two pilots and soldier De Leeuw also went along. The trip failed due to the bad weather conditions. However, during a new attempt on December 7, 1944, the group, 16 men and one woman, was discovered by a German patrol. It came to a shooting in which one man was seriously injured. In the confusion, the two pilots, soldier De Leeuw and a student in hiding managed to escape. The woman and a resistance fighter who led the way also escaped. Eleven men were captured, however. One later escaped and was probably shot. After heavy interrogations, on Sunday December 10, 1944, nine resistance fighters were hanged by the Germans at the slotlaan of Slot Moermond in

Renesse. The seriously injured died the same evening, after which his corpse was hanged. Soldier De Leeuw was later captured in Amsterdam after wandering.

Of the group of commandos deployed at Arnhem, soldier Bakhuys-Rooseboom died on 20 September 1944 during an action in which jeeps attempted to contact the 2nd Battalion of British paratroopers that occupied the northern ramp of the bridge in Arnhem. He was buried in the garden of the Hartenstein hotel. His remains were not recovered after the war.

During the action, Lieutenant Knottenbelt was part of a group of 3 Dutch officers who had been sent by the Special Assignments Office to the 1st British Airborne division. He had to organize the resistance groups present in and around Arnhem. On September 20, 1944, he made an attempt with the Canadian lieutenant L. Heaps to cross the Rhine with the Driel ferry to make contact with the Polish parachutist and brigade that had landed in the Betuwe.

During a firefight on September 20, 1944, Knottenbelt killed a high German officer. The story says that this officer was a general. However, this is unlikely. Only one German general was killed near Arnhem, namely Major General Kussin, who was shot dead in his car by a British patrol on 17 September 1944, at 5.30 pm.

One of the commandos, soldier M. van Barnevelt, saved the life of an English soldier during the battle by amputating his leg with a knife. Soldier A.J.Ph. Beekmeyer was cut off on September 20, 1944 with a group of Englishmen and had to surrender. Soldier H.C.J. Gobetz was injured and was also captured on September 20, 1944, while

the soldier H.M.J. Gubbels fell into German hands during a reconnaissance patrol a day later. The three soldiers eventually ended up in the same prison camp in Germany. They escaped from this in mid-February 1945 and were captured again at the Czech border. They were still dressed in English uniform. They escaped for the second time at the end of April, after which the group reached the American lines at Chemnitz in early May 1945.

During the night of 25 to 26 September 1944, the remains of the 1st British Airborne Division were withdrawn over the Rhine as mentioned. This included five Dutch commandos whose lieutenant Knottenbelt was wounded. The soldiers M. van Barnevelt and J.P.H. on that occasion van der Meer went back several times to help evacuate even more soldiers. Sergeant W. de Waard was captured on September 26. The English had him. forgot to warn about the evacuation over the Rhine of the 1st British Airborne division the night before.

On September 12, 1944, five non-commissioned officers, six corporals and eight soldiers from the Dutch commandos were seconded to the American 82nd Airborne division. Of these, two sergeants, two corporals and one soldier went to the US 101st Airborne Division on September 15 while one soldier was sent back to Eastbourne for speaking insufficient Dutch. The commands were divided between the different parts of the two Airborne divisions, which were tasked with capturing the bridges between Eindhoven and Nijmegen.

The soldiers A. Bloemink and J.A. van der Linden jumped as a parachutist without having had any training. Sergeant R.B. Visser was the second pilot of a glider. Corporal H. Cramer, who was wounded from the front lines, was nominated by the Americans for a Bronze Star, which he never received. All commandos acted as interpreters during the fighting, participated in reconnaissance patrols, and maintained close contact with the domestic forces and the population.

On October 11, all the staff of no 2 (Dutch) Troop that was still in the Netherlands were gathered in Eindhoven, except for three men who stayed with the staff of HRH Prince Bernhard and three as instructors with the Stoottroepen. In total, 25 Dutch commands were still available for action. They were given the choice to either be withdrawn from the peace as well as the Allied parachute divisions or to participate in an important action on Dutch territory. The latter was agreed unanimously.

On October 13 the commandos were transferred from Bruges to Bruges and assigned to the 4th Special Service Brigade. Three days later, the Troop was split into two groups.

The first group consisted of 1st Lieutenant C. de Ruiter, three non-commissioned officers and seven corporals. This group was assigned No 1 (French) Troop and No 8 (French) Troop, under No 4 Commando. This Commando carried out the landing near Vlissingen on 1 November 1944 as operation troop for the 155 brigade of the 52nd (Lowland) division (Operation Infatuate I). The Dutch commandos mainly served as guides and were therefore constantly in the front lines.

The second group consisted of Captain J. Linzel, four non-commissioned officers and nine corporals. They were assigned to No 47 (Royal Marines) Commando on 10 October and were divided among the various Troops with the exception of one sergeant assigned to the staff of No 4 Commando Brigade. On November 1, 1944 at about 11 am they sailed with landing boats through the hole in the previously bombed dike at Westkapelle and landed under dike south of this hole under heavy fire.

On November 11, No 2 (Dutch) collected Troop, after which it left for England three days later. They arrived in Eastbourne on 16 November 1944. After returning from the Netherlands, the strength of No 2 (Dutch) Troop was reduced to 2 officers and 17 non-commissioned officers and corporals.

In October 1944, four and in April 1945 two more commandos were parachuted over occupied Netherlands. They had to establish contacts with the resistance to provide weapons and sabotage instructions and coordinate the deployment of the Interior Forces for the upcoming Allied offensive. These six contributed greatly to the success of the Canadian offensive and the actions of two French paratroopers regiments in April 1945.

In early October 1944, Captain Linzel expressed the wish to supplement No 2 (Dutch) Troop. The Minister of War gave permission to recruit 80 men in the liberated South Netherlands. On November 7, 1st Lieutenant M.J. Knottenbelt from England, where he was healed from his injuries he sustained near Arnhem, to recruit 80 men. However, it turned out that not enough men had been recruited yet and on November 15 he was informed that his group was already on November 17 from Ostende had to leave with the result that a good selection was omitted. The health status of the newly recruited was not optimal after four years of occupation. Partly as a result of the 107 volunteers, 35 dropped out during the training in Achnacarry. After the commando course, training continued in Eastbourne where the old group of commandos had arrived on November 16.

On April 26, 1945, the supplemented Troop left England for the Netherlands, where it was deployed on April 30 at Made, Noord-Brabant. No 2 (Dutch) Troop was then assigned to no 4 Commando Brigade as part of no 48 (Royal Marines) Commando.

After the capitulation of Germany on May 5, 1945, the Dutch commandos were over

stationed in Winterswijk in June and on 28 June the Troop took part in the liberation parade in Amsterdam. From the beginning of July to the beginning of August, part of No 2 (Dutch) Troop served as guards of the Interneringskamp no 91 in Recklinghausen in Germany, followed by a transfer to The Hague on 4 August.

The strength then amounted to five officers and 87 non-commissioned officers, corporals and soldiers, 32 of whom were stationed in the Netherlands. The others were in England where they were taking courses, waiting for demobilization, coming back from captivity, or recovering from injuries. Several commandos had also left for Colombo in order to strengthen the Insulinde Corps still stationed there.

In October 1945 No 2 (Dutch) Troop of No 10 (Interallied) Commando was disbanded. A request for the establishment of a command school had already been made on June 7 by the then Minister of War Prof. Dr. ir. J.E. de Quay rejected.

In March 1942, the Insulinde Corps was founded on Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka). The purpose of the Corps, originally called “Netherlands Special Operations”, was to gather intelligence and organize guerrilla activities on Sumatra, occupied by the Japanese. In 1943 some commanders of No 2 (Dutch) Troop were appointed to participate in the battle in the Far East. The designated commandos received additional jungle training and para training.

Five Dutch commandos are deployed behind the enemy lines in Arakan and Assam from India, partly with No 44 (Royal Marine) Commando and partly with No 5 Commando. After a train journey through India, the Troop finally departed from Bombay by ship on July 14, 1944 and arrived in Liverpool on August 15, 1944, after which she was again stationed in Eastbourne. With varying success, a total of 17 landings, mostly from a submarine, were made on the Sumatran coast in 1943 and 1944. In one of the actions, Lieutenant Wijnmalen was captured and killed by the Japanese after being interrogated and tortured.

From May 1945, the Insulinde Corps was reinforced with 154 volunteers, including members of No 2 (Dutch) Troop and the Bureau for Special Assignments. In July 1945 a number of teams were dropped by parachute over Sumatra. After the capitulation of Japan, the Insulinde Corps was charged, among other things, with securing the approximately 15,000 prisoners of war and internees (Recovery Allied Prisoners of War and Internees, RAPWI) in Sumatra. In November 1945 the dissolution of the Insulinde Corps began, which was completed in early March 1946.

Helmets, berets and other headgear worn by No.2 Dutch Troop

Petembleem, model 1940, geproduceerd door Gaunt.

De Petembleem, model 1940 werd door commando's op de groene baret gedragen vanaf 1942 tot 1947.

Verschillende emblemen gedragen door No.2 Dutch Troop

Korpsonderscheidingstekenen worden ook wel schoudertitel, naamlint, naambandje of straatnaam genoemd.

Vwb de nummering van de korpsonderscheidingstekenen, hanteert dutchhelmets de nummering zoals vermeld in het boekwerk 'Naambandjes Nederland' van Samenwerkende Militariaverzamelaars (SMV) uit 1982.

Let op, niet alle schoudertitels zijn vermeld in het boekwerk, zeker de recent weer ingevoerde korpsonderscheidingstekenen.

6th KNID and the Stormschool (1945-1950)

In the years 1945 to 1950, the battle for Indonesia was central to the Royal Netherlands Army (KL). Because conscripts were not immediately available in 1945, the army command was primarily dependent on war volunteers and prisoners of war who had returned from captivity. One of the places where these volunteers received their training was Wildhoef, a beautifully situated building complex in the Noord-Holland town of Bloemendaal. An institute where the infantry underwent hard combat training and which attracted attention even abroad.

First Lieutenant J.H.A.K. Gualthérie van Weezel was tasked with establishing the 6th Royal Infantry Depot (6th KNID) on October 1, 1945, in Bloemendaal. Task was to provide frame training and provide courses in hard combat training. On May 7, 1946, the name was changed to Stormschool Bloemendaal.

Personnel came from the 2nd Depot Battalion Region 12 (Dutch Interior Forces), however the core of the personnel consisted of former members of No 2 (Dutch) Troop, so it was not surprising that the command atmosphere was fully reflected in the training courses. .

It was not until April 1948 that Stormschool received permission to train twenty professional soldiers to command. Following the old-timers of No 2 (Dutch) Troop, they would serve as instructors. Ten non-commissioned officers of the twenty students completed the course and were awarded the green beret on June 5, 1948.

In April 1949 the Stormschool from Bloemendaal moved to the Engelbrecht from Nassaukazerne in Roosendaal and the name changed to Stormschool Roosendaal.

From March 1950, a hundred officers and non-commissioned officers of the Regiment Special Troops (RST), who had returned from the Dutch East Indies, were placed as instructors at the Stormschool Roosendaal.

Various insignia worn at the 6e KNID and the Stormschool

Dutch East Indies (1945-1950)

In early 1946, a part of the personnel of the dissolved No 2 (Dutch) Troop and the Insulinde Corps formed the core of the formation of new para-command units in the Dutch East Indies. Independently of each other, the Depot Special Troops (green berets) and the School Training Parachutists (red berets) were created, later with the 1st Para-Company. In 1948 the Special Troops Depot was renamed Corps Special Troops.

Depot Speciale Troepen (Special Troops Depot) en het Korps Speciale Troepen (Special Forces Corps)

On June 15, 1946 in Polonia (at Meester Cornelis) the Depot Speciale Troepen (DST)

established. Captain Scheepens of the former Insulinde Corps became commander. In the night of 18 to 19 July 1946, 19 men from the DST took part in a purification action at Tjileungsir (southeast of Meester Cornelis) under the command of Scheepens. On approaching the bridge there, the unit was ambushed by Japanese snipers and suffered heavy casualties. Three men were killed, five were seriously injured, three of whom died shortly after. Scheepens himself was seriously injured and never returned to his unit. Incomplete training had avenged bitterly. Lieutenant R.P.P. Westerner, who had served with No. 2 (Dutch) Troop and Insulinde Corps, took over command. On December 5, 1946, he debarked with the operational part of the DST for the strength of 123 men in Makassar. The same day he heard that he had been promoted. The twenty-seven-year-old captain was faced with the gigantic task of liberating an area the size of the Netherlands from itinerant gangs with his unit.

In mid-February 1947, justice and safety had been restored in South Sulawesi and an orderly society had become possible again. The DST went back to Java.

On January 5, 1948, the Korps Speciale Troepen (KST) was established and on August 9, 1948, two operationally independent companies were formed. The parachutist company (Para Cie KST) was formed from the personnel who had obtained a parachutist certificate.

School voor Opleiding van Parachutisten (School for Parachute Training) and 1e Parachutisten Compagnie (1st Parachute Company)

On March 1, 1946, the School of Parachute Training (SOP) was established. The school that was located in Batavia was commanded by First Lieutenant C. Sisselaar, an officer of the former Insulinde Corps. In June 1946, the SOP went to Hollandia in New Guinea, where efforts were made to form an operational unit. The personnel left for Bali and were stationed in Gianjar. On May 1, 1947, by order of the army commander, Lieutenant General S.H. Track down the 1st Paratroopers Company (1st Para Cie) established with Bandoeng as its base. Captain Sisselaar became commander but formally also remained Commander SOP.

During the second half of November and the first half of December 1948, the 1st Para Cie and the Para Cie KST practiced together as a Para Combat Group under the command of Captain W.D.H. Eekhout. On December 17, 1948, the Para Battle Group was consigned at Andit airfield near Bandoeng and informed of the most important mission it ever had to fulfill in the Dutch East Indies.

On December 19, at about 7:00 AM, the paratroopers captured Majoewo airfield at Djokjakarta while the KST, after being flown in at 12:35 PM, set out for the republican capital along with an infantry battalion. After a shootout at Fort Vredeburg, President Sukarno and the Republican government were captured at the Governor's Palace at about 3:30 PM. At 5.30 pm the last resistance nests were cleared and Djokjakarta was in Dutch hands.

On December 29, after heavy fighting, the paratroopers in Sumatra captured Djambi with the airport and three surrounding oil estates. The KST commandos debited on the same date in Emmahaven near Padang and penetrated deep into enemy territory. After a nightly advance and audacious actions, a penetration of approximately 325 km was successfully completed. The republican area in Sumatra had been cut in half by the overpowering of Pakanbaroe.

On January 5, 1949, the paratroopers in Indragiri captured the oil estates at Rengat and Ajer Molek. The republic had also lost its grip on Sumatra. The paratroopers returned to Java on January 20. The KST followed on January 25.

With regard to the Para-combat group's and the KST's share in the success of the second police action, the general opinion was that the rapid embezzlement of Djokjakarta in particular had made a great impression on the population and paralyzed the resistance of the Republican army. Without wishing to compromise on the performance of the other parts of the Dutch armed forces, people praised the bold action of the Red and Green Berets. They had been working almost continuously and sent from one operationarea to another. On March 1, 1949, the 1st Para Cie came under the administrative command of Commander KST. The Para Cie KST was renamed 2nd Para Cie and exchanged the green berets for red ones. The paratroopers now formed the Paratroopers Division.

Regiment Speciale Troepen (Special Forces Regiment)

On July 15, 1949, the KST was dissolved by order of the army commander and the Regiment Speciale Troepen (RST) was established. Lieutenant Colonel J.J.F. Borghouts became commander and the RST was stationed in Batudjadjar.

The regiment consisted of the 1st Battalion (Para) under the command of Captain W.D.H. Eekhout and the 2nd Battalion (Commando) under the command of Captain J.C.A. Faber.

The SOP and the Depot KST were merged into the Training Center Special Troops Regiment (OCRST), based in Tjimah.

The transfer of sovereignty took place on December 27, 1949, and on that day and the following the RST was consigned. The first quarter of 1950 was dominated by uncertainty, demobilization and repatriation. KNIL detachments left for Ambon, Celebes and Timor. Royal Netherlands Army (KL) and KNIL RST personnel went to the Netherlands with their families.

Lieutenant Colonel Borghouts started a fierce battle to keep his regiment for the KL. After arriving in the Netherlands, the RST, as far as it was not demobilized, was stationed in Kamp Prinsenbosch near Chaam and partly placed at the Stormschool in Roosendaal. On April 22, 1950 Borghouts left hopefully from Indonesia, he was told that he had to arrange the reorganization of the RST in the Netherlands. When he arrived in the Netherlands, he learned that the RST was too expensive and did not fit the KL organization. The establishment of a parachutist battalion was being studied by the General Staff. The Secretary of State for War, mr W.H. Fockema Andreae envisaged the establishment of two corps, a command corps based on the renowned Stormschool Bloemendaal and a separate parachutist corps.

Helmets, berets and other headgear worn in Netherlands East-Indies

Various insignia worn in Netherlands East-Indies

Koninklijk Koninklijke Nederland Nederlands Nederlandse Krijgsmacht Defensie NL NLD SOCOM Landmacht Leger No2 No 2 No10 10 Interallied Dutch Troop Korps Commandotroepen Commando Depot Regiment Speciale Troepen KCT KST DST RST KNIL DPS Indisch Indische Indonesië Insulinde School Opleiding Parachutisten SOP Paracompagnie Stormschool Bloemendaal Roosendaal Marine Mariniers MARSOF NLMARSOF Netherlands Maritime Special Operations Forces Bijzonder Bijstands Eenheid BBE Unit Interventie Mariniers UIM Marechaussee Brigade Speciale Beveiligingsopdrachten Beveiliging Beveiligings Opdrachten BSB

Helm Helmen Helmet Casque Baret Baretten Beret Pet Veldpet Muts Mutsdas Uniform Embleem Baretembleem Korpsonderscheidingstekenen Wapenonderscheidingstekenen Onderscheidingstekenen Para Parabrevet Parabrevetten Parawing Wing Brevet Brevetten Parachutist Parachutisten Uitzending Missie Bosnië Macedonië Kosovo Irak Afghanistan Uruzgan Uruzghan Mali Oefening Lowland Lowlands

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